Author: Dr. Ryan Llera (page 2 of 27)

Why Wounds Shouldn’t Wait

The warmer weather has finally arrived.  Dogs and cats are out playing.  Outdoor cats are once again patrolling their territory.  Sometimes that playtime or territorial behavior can end up in somebody getting  a cat or dog bite wound or other type of injury caused by their exploration.  You know what else is back?  Bugs….specifically flies, mosquitoes, fleas, and ticks – but more on this later.

Superficial wounds would classify as scrapes, scratches, abrasions, and bruising.  In many of these cases, they can be addressed at home by basic first aid cleaning.  Yet, if it doesn’t seem to be going well, you should get your pet in to be checked by their veterinarian.  It’s the nasty bite wounds and lacerations that I’m mostly worried about.

dog bite wound

A wound that waited too long

In medicine, we have what is called the “golden period” when discussing wounds.  This is the optimal time period in which we have to clean and repair a wound.  Over the course of history, the length of time has varied between 6-24 hours.  Generally, after this time, wound repair becomes more complicated as the edges have generally dried up or become necrotic.  This is the real reason it’s a bad idea to wait or try to treat these larger or deeper wounds at home.  The longer it takes for a wound to be addressed leads to increased pain, risk of infection, time to heal, and increased costs.

dog bite wound

Drain placement for a pocketed wound

Some wounds might be simple punctures.  Yet, some of those puncture wounds also include pulling away of the skin from the underneath subcutaneous layers.  This creates a pocketing effect where inflammatory fluid can accumulate.  If the hole closes up too quickly and the wound hasn’t been adequately flushed, this is how abscesses are created and drain will need to be placed during a surgical procedure.  The time it may not go exactly this way is bite wounds on the legs which causes a diffuse, painful inflammation around the muscles and nerves – this is one of the most common reasons I see outdoor cats limping.

From Univ. of Florida Entomology Dept

Remember those bugs?  Flies are the worst ones when it comes to wounds as they have no decency!  Some flies may lay eggs in a pet’s wound and when that happens what amounts to an alien horde is going to beam down next.  Once the eggs hatch, you get maggots.  Ick!  While they prevent the wound from healing, they can also lead to further infection and pain.  Maggots need to be cleaned out, in one piece, and the dead tissue needs to be removed followed by additional treatments.  Breaking or crushing maggots could lead to the release of substances that can cause shock, an anaphylactic reaction, or even death.

As you can see, wounds can be a serious matter and in some cases just “waiting to see how they turn out” could lead to further problems.  At a minimum, get it checked out and don’t delay.  Early intervention can prevent bigger problems in the long run!

Disclaimer: All blog posts are my own opinion and do not reflect those of any current or former employers.

You can also find me on Instagram @drryanllera and as always on Facebook & Twitter!

Keep Calm and Socialize Your Pet

Animal behavior is one of the hardest areas of veterinary medicine.  I’ll admit it…it’s not my favorite area and we got virtually no education in the subject during my time in vet school in the early 2000s.  While myself and many other veterinarians have gotten continuing education in the field, behavior problems are still the top reason for animals to be surrendered or euthanized.  It’s a complicated and gray area but I want to give you one of my top tips to help your pet.

Socialize, socialize, socialize!!!

Cat buddies

For dogs & cat, the prime development period where they truly learn to form relationships is between 3-16 weeks of age.  Most of the time, puppies & kittens are still with their mothers until at least 7-8 weeks of age and they can learn to develop a hierarchy.  They will also start to bond with the people who are caring for them.  It’s the time they come home that they can truly start to develop a personality and meet different people.  Use this time to start puppy classes or for your kitten encourage friendly play. Invite your friends over and use the bribery of treats or playtime to let your pet get used to different people.  For cats though, it can likely take a longer time and with people who have a quiet demeanor.

Rudy the couch potato

Additionally, you want to get your pets to meet other animals.  Maybe you have other pets or friends with pets.  You want the interactions to be fun and friendly.  My own dog Rudy has his own issues.  We adopted him when he was 14 months old.  He was given up supposedly for his non-stop energy and activity.  I’m going to call that out as a lie.  He can be a regular couch potato.  Yes, he’s got allergies but he’s also a jerk a lot of the time.  His problem is he doesn’t know how to greet other dogs.  Most of the time he wants to play but to the casual observer he looks like he wants to fight.  We have made our best efforts to help him, and he’s improving, but a lot of this could have been avoided through some proper socialization and behavior training.

socialize your pet

Grateful kisses from Max

The last thing that particularly is troublesome is animals who are afraid of somebody giving them a possibly endless supply of cookies.  Yeah, I’m talking about pets visiting the veterinarian…and most dogs don’t leave without spoiling their dinner with liver treats.  I’m happy when pets are healthy, but I think it’s a disadvantage to them in terms of stress in visiting an unfamiliar place.  I want to encourage everyone to start with your young cat or dog, bring them in regularly for visits just to say hi, get a few treats, or hop up on the scale.  A visit without any poking or prodding can go a long way to reducing stress during those medical visits.  But it doesn’t stop after they become adults.  Your pet should visit the vet at least once a year, even if they seem healthy, it’s good to get that confirmation from your veterinarian but also to maintain a friendly relationship between your pet & their vet.

I encourage you to help your cat or dog adjust to their new life with you and to be a role model for other pets.  Ask your veterinarian or friends and get references for trainers in your area if you need help.  Some of them will use properly updated methods that are more positive for your pet while others use what may be considered archaic or negative reinforcement.  Trust me, your veterinarian and their staff will also thank you for having a well behaved pet.  By encouraging good social skills, our pets can live happier and healthier lives.

Disclaimer: All blog posts are my own opinion and do not reflect those of any current or former employers.

You can also find me on Instagram @drryanllera and as always on Facebook & Twitter!

Brush like a Dog Dentist!

Guest Post by Dr. Jennifer Weeks-Llera

Before dental cleaning

Dental disease is one of the most common things I see during annual physical examinations of dogs.  Many people are surprised at the amount of tartar and gingivitis that has developed in their dogs mouth since their last visit and they are not familiar with the importance of home care that can be done to prevent this dental disease.  Daily control of plaque before it becomes mineralized to form tartar is the most important factor for a healthy mouth.  As plaque builds up, periodontal disease will develop which can lead to pain and loss of teeth.  Bad teeth will cause chronic infection and inflammation that can have negative effects on a pet’s overall health.  So what steps can you take to keep your dog’s mouth healthy?  The key to prevention of plaque and tartar is home care.

Just as for our own teeth, daily brushing is one of the best things that can be done to prevent plaque development on your dog’s teeth.  Frequently, I hear clients comment that their dog gets his/her teeth brushed every 6 weeks or so by the groomer and they can’t believe how the teeth could be so dirty.  If we think about this in comparison to our own dental health, this would be the equivalent of you only getting your teeth brushed when you go for a haircut.  So how frequently should you brush your dogs teeth?  Brushing three times a week can be adequate to maintain teeth and gums that are healthy, however daily brushing is needed if gingivitis is already present.

When should you start brushing your dogs teeth?

Start early!  As young as 8-12 weeks of age is a great time to start brushing your puppy’s teeth.  Even though the puppy will eventually loose the deciduous, or baby, teeth as their permanent teeth erupt, getting them used to having their teeth brushed is an important first step in dental home care.  When you notice that your puppy is beginning to loose their baby teeth (usually around 14 weeks of age), it is a good idea to stop brushing the teeth brushing for a little while until their permanent teeth have erupted as their mouth may be a bit sore as they are teething.

A soft bristled tooth brush is best used when brushing your dog’s teeth.  It is important never to use human toothpastes as these are not intended to be swallowed.  Pet toothpastes are safe if swallowed and are available in a number of flavours, such as poultry and beef, to increase your pet’s acceptance of them.

pet dental health tooth brushingIt is good to make a daily routine of brushing your dog’s teeth.  Remember to make it fun and rewarding!  As you first introduce your dog to teeth brushing, coat the toothbrush with pet safe toothpaste and allow your pet to simply lick the brush a 4-5 times per day for the first couple of days.  As your pet becomes comfortable with the toothbrush near their mouth, you can gently begin to handle the muzzle and lips and then begin to lift the dog’s lip and rub your finger along the outer surfaces of the teeth and gums.  Once your pet is comfortable with you doing this, you can gradually introduce them to using the toothbrush to brush along these surfaces of the top and bottom teeth.  Brushing the inner, tongue side, of the teeth is less important than the outer surfaces.  Brush the teeth in small, circular motions.  A slight amount of bleeding from the gum line may sometimes occur, but if you notice ongoing or heavy bleeding this may indicate the presence of gum disease.  If this is noticed, it is best to speak with your veterinarian for further recommendations.

Dental Foods & Chews

Although not a substitute for daily teeth brushing, dental diets (such as Hill’s T/D, Royal Canin Dental, Science Diet Dental Care, and Purina DH) have been shown to effectively decrease the plaque and tartar build up on dog’s teeth.  These diets are designed to be fed as an entire meal on a daily basis and, when you are ready to switch your dog from a puppy food onto an adult food, are an excellent adult maintenance diet option.

pet dental health

Another common misconception is that chewing on bones, cow hooves, or antlers can help keep a dog’s teeth clean.  These chew toys are not considered appropriate for dogs as they are very hard and can easily break teeth.  Broken teeth can, in turn, cause the dog pain and lead to the development of tooth root abscesses.  The “knee-cap test” is a good way to help decide if a toy is safe for your dogs teeth.  If a toy is so hard that you wouldn’t want to hit your knee with it, then your dog shouldn’t be chewing on it.  Additionally, softer chew toys are better for puppies as their baby teeth are more fragile than adult dog teeth and they can very easily be fractured.

from VOHC.org

There are many products on the market with claims to improve pet’s dental health that have no research to support these claims.  The Veterinary Oral Health Council (VOHC), which consists of veterinary dentists and dental scientists, was formed to recognize cat and dog products that meet standards to decrease the formation of plaque and tartar.  Products that meet these standards are awarded the VOHC Seal of Acceptance.  A list of these products can be found on the VOHC website.  Some examples of the products that are listed include several dental diets, Greenies, and Healthy Mouth Water Additive.

It is very important to remember that the home care tips discussed in this article are recommended for the PREVENTION of plaque and tartar and are not a treatment for established dental disease.  An essential component of your dog’s dental care includes yearly or semiannual examination by a veterinarian who can identify dental disease early on and provide recommendations on treatment options that are available.  By providing dental home care for your dog, along with guidance from your veterinarian, you can help keep your dog’s breath fresh and their teeth healthy.

 

Dr. Jennifer Weeks-Llera is an associate small animal veterinarian at Richmond Veterinary Clinic in Napanee, Ontario.  She is married to fellow veterinarian, Dr. Ryan Llera.  Together, they own and love 2 dogs, 3 cats, 2 horses, and a rabbit.

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